wine & brandy industry information
Selected white or red grapes, containing no diseases, are picked manually or mechanically at optimal ripeness, which may differ depending on the wine type or style.
The grapes are delivered at the cellar where it is destalked ...
... and the berries are crushed.
Additives like sulphur dioxide and enzymes are added to ensure a sound fermentation and enhance the quality of the final wine. The pomace are cooled to retain grape flavours before the skins are separated from the juice, unless skin contact is required. Skin contact increases the colour and mouthfeel of the resulting wine. The juice is clarified to remove skin particles and impurities in order to make a delicate premium wine. The separated skins are pressed to recover the remaining juice, which is also clarified to make ordinary wine.
The clarified juice is inoculated with pure culture yeast to initiate alcoholic fermentation or left for spontaneous alcoholic fermentation. During the alcoholic fermentation the sugars in the juice are converted to alcohol, carbon dioxide and heat. In order to prevent excessive heat, which can lead to the evaporation of flavours cooling is applied during fermentation.
After completion of fermentation when all the sugars in the juice were converted the wine can be separated from the fermentation lees immediately or left on the lees to add a buttery character to the wine. Necessary additives like sulphur dioxide is added to ensure a sound wine and fining agents are used in combination with filtration to clarify the young wine.
If required the clarified young wine can be matured in barrels or utilised as a unwooded wine. After the completion of fermentation and during maturation, containers must always been kept full to prevent spoilage of the wine.
Different wines are blended to ensure consistency regarding the type, style and sweetness degree of the wine to be bottled. Sweetness degrees range from dry (without any sugar) to off dry, semi-sweet and sweet natural wines with increasing sugar concentrations. The blended wine is stabilised to prevent any colour, flavour and taste changes or precipitations before it is bottled.
Blended and stabilised wines are bottled.